Language:
Find Us and Booking
Search Our Medical Centre Network
Service
Specialty
Region
Name or Keywords
Education Corner
未命名-1 *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.8.2 未命名-1 *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.8.2 未命名-1 *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.8.2 未命名-1 *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.8.2 shutterstock_1188106696 Day Sleepiness and Serious Snoring Problems? *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.4.2 sleep apnoea Snoring and Sleep Apnea *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.31 016 Travelers should beware of contagious disease *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 015 Prolonged fever in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 014 Asperger's Disorder *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 013 Scarlet Fever *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 012 Haematuria *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 011 Hib (PedvaxHIB Amp) Vaccine Haemophilus influenzae type b(Hib) is mainly transmitted through direct contact with nose or throat secretion of an infected person. It is a kind of bacteria that can cause serious invasive diseases, which usually affects young children. Haemophilus influenzae type b(Hib) does not cause influenza or flu. In contrary, it commonly presents as meningitis (infection of membranes covering the brain), often accompanied by germ entering the bloodstream. It may also affect other parts of the body, such as the lungs, epiglottis (upper part of the throat), etc. Meningitis can lead to symptoms such as fever and nausea; while epiglottitis can cause symptoms such as drooling and difficulty in breathing. Therefore, it is suggested that infants should receive a total of 4 Hib vaccinations respectively at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months after birth, so as to induce development of antibodies in the body and provide protection against bacterial infection. 2018.12.21 09 MMR Priorix Vaccine Measles, Mumps and Rubella are infectious diseases that are transmitted by droplets or direct contact with respiratory secretions of infected persons. Therefore, it is recommended all infants and children should receive MMR vaccine, to effectively prevent the above three infectious diseases. Some children may experience fever or skin rash 5 to 12 days after injection, but these symptoms will not persist for long. A minority of children may develop transient swelling of lymph glands, but the cases are very rare. 2018.12.21 09 De Quervain's disease *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 08 Plantar fasciitis *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 07 Upper Crossed Syndrome *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 06 Degenerative Joint Disease *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 05 Back Pain *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 images_vaccine 5 In 1 Vaccine & 6 In 1 Vaccine 5 In 1 Vaccine & 6 In 1 Vaccine    5in1 Vaccine(DTaP-IPV/Hib) 6in1 Vaccine(DTaP-IPV-HBV-Hib) PreventableDiseases .Diphteria.Tetanus.Pertussis.Polio.Hib .Diphteria.Tetanus.Pertussis.Polio.Hib.Hepatitis B 2 kinds of mixed vaccines have adopted non-cellular formula. It can effectively prevent infants from being infected by Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (Whooping Cough), Poliomyelitis and Haemophilus Influenzae. Type B (Hib). 6 in 1 is plus hepatitis B all rolled into 1 vaccine. Compare with the injection of traditional vaccines, these mixed vaccines can reduce total number of doses greatly and thereby help infants to alleviate with discomfort and pain related to vaccinations in order not to get parents worry. 2018.12.11 iStock_000054349804_web-e1487270567260 HPV Vaccine 1. What is human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine? Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (also named as cervical cancer vaccine) is a prophylactic vaccine to prevent cervical cancer as well as other HPV-related cancers or diseases. Currently, there are three registered HPV vaccines in Hong Kong, namely 2-valent vaccine, 4-valent vaccine and 9-valent vaccine. All of them are prescription-only medicines, so they should only be used after clinical assessment by registered doctors.   2. How effective are HPV vaccines? Both the Scientific Committee on Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Scientific Committee and Scientific Committee on AIDS and STI under the Centre for Health Protection recommend that all three registered HPV vaccines could prevent infections from HPV types 16 and 18, which account for about 70% of all cervical cancer. By covering five additional HPV genotypes, i.e. HPV-31, 33, 45, 52, 58, the 9-valent vaccine could prevent up to 90% of cervical cancer. The attributes and dosing recommendations of the three registered HPV vaccines available in Hong Kong Vaccines 2-valent 4-valent 9-valent Against HPV HPV-16,18 HPV-6,11,16,18 HPV-6,11,16,18,31,33,45,52,58 Indicated age From the age of 9 years(Female only) From the age of 9 years (Both female & male) From the age of 9 years(Both female & male) Diseases prevention caused by related HPV       .Cervical cancer Yes Yes Yes .Genital warts No Yes Yes Approved dose regime in Hong Kong 9-14 years old: 2 doses 15 years old and above: 3 doses 9-13 years old: 2 doses 14 years old and above: 3 doses 9-14 years old: 2 doses 15 years old and above: 3 doses Source: Consensus Statement on the Use of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine in prevention of cervical cancer, CHP (Sep 2016)    3. How long will HPV vaccines provide protection? Latest research has shown that HPV vaccines offer protection for at least 9 years.    4. Who should get HPV vaccination? HPV vaccines work best for women who have never been exposed to HPV infection. Therefore, they should work best in women who have not started sexual activities. In women who have had sexual activities, the effectiveness varies. Please consult your doctor for further information.   5. How are HPV vaccines given? HPV vaccines can either be given as 2-dose or 3-dose schedule according to the age of the individuals. Please consult your doctor for further advice.   6. Are there any side effects from HPV vaccines? HPV vaccines are generally safe. Common side effects are similar to those from other vaccinations, such as soreness and swelling at the injection site, fever, headache and nausea. The vaccines are not recommended for those who have had allergic reactions to any component of HPV vaccines. If in doubt, please consult your doctor for further advice. In addition, the Department of Health has pharmacovigilance system in place to keep vigilance on the safety of HPV vaccines.    7. Are HPV vaccines safe for pregnant women? Because of limited data, HPV vaccines are not recommended for pregnant women. Pregnant women should consult their doctors for any queries.   8. Do I still need cervical cancer screening after HPV vaccination? Yes, women who have received HPV vaccination still need regular cervical cancer screening because HPV vaccination does not protect against infection by the HPV types that are not found in the vaccines, nor can clear the virus in those who have already been infected.  2018.12.5 images_vaccine Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Pneumococcal infection Pneumococcal infection represents a wide range of diseases caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae / pneumococcus). More than 90 serotypes have been identified. It can be transmitted by droplet spread and contact with respiratory secretions; direct contact is another way of transmission. S.pneumoniae causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including: meningitis: it is a severe type of pneumococcal infection and usually presents with fever, stiff neck and mental confusion, causing long-term problems, such as hearing loss, or even death; pneumonia: it commonly presents with fever, shortness of breath, chills and productive cough, and may result in death in severe cases; and otitis media: it presents with fever, ear pain with or without ear discharge, and may lead to hearing loss in recurrent cases. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) A. Why get vaccinated? Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) can effectively protect against severe invasive infections due to the serotypes of S. pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. Children aged below 2 years are at risk to severe invasive pneumococcal infection (i.e. meningitis, bacteraemic pneumonia and septicaemia) and are advised to get vaccinated.  In Hong Kong, PCV13 (vaccine consisting of antigens against thirteen pneumococci serotypes) is included in the Hong Kong Childhood Immunisation Programme.  The Scientific Committee on Vaccine Preventable Diseases recommends individuals aged 2 to 64 years with certain high risk conditions* to receive 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharideas well as PCV 13.  For more details, please refer to the following link: *High risk conditions include: History of invasive pneumococcal disease Immunocompromised states: Asplenia, HIV /AIDS , primary immunodeficiency Immunodeficiencies related to malignancies and transplantation Immunodeficiencies related to use of immunosuppressive drugs / systemic steroid Chronic disease Chronic cardiac, pulmonary, liver or renal disease Diabetes mellitus or Cerebrospinal fluid leakage With cochlear implants (Essential hypertension per se is not considered as a high risk condition) Different factors such as age and clinical condition may affect the risk of pneumococcal disease. Patients with high-risk conditions should discuss with their attending doctors on the most appropriate vaccination regimen. B. When should my child get vaccinated? A child is advised to receive 3 doses of PCV13 in the first year of life (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months old), and another booster dose at 12 months old. C. The following individuals should NOT receive PCV serious allergic reaction to previous dose of PCV serious allergic reaction to diphtheria toxoid containing vaccine D. What are the side effects? Most people have no serious reactions after receiving PCV.   Occasionally there may be mild fever (usually occur within 3 days after vaccination) or slight redness or swelling around the injection site, but these will gradually subside in a few days. If fever or discomforts persist, or abnormal breathing is observed, please consult a doctor immediately. E. How many types of PCV are available in HK and what are their protection? There are more than 1 type of PCV available in the market of Hong Kong but no one PCV can cover all serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Personal and environmental hygiene are important measures in preventing pneumococcal infection.   2018.12.5 shutterstock_589026884-928x522 Hepatitis B Vaccination Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is another type of viral hepatitis that leads to acute hepatitis. It can be followed by chronic liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. It has an incubation period of 6 weeks to 6 months. About 5-10% of infected adults and 70-90% of infected infants are unable to clear the virus, therefore becoming chronic hepatitis B and serving as a source of infection to others. Epidemiology HBV infection occurs throughout the world. It is estimated that more than 2 billion people have been infected worldwide, of which more than 350 million have chronic liver infection. Hepatitis B is endemic in Southeast Asia. In Hong Kong, the overall prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection is moderate. Transmission of Hepatitis B The hepatitis B virus is found in the body fluids of an infected person, mainly in the form of blood, amniotic fluid, semen and vaginal secretions. Routes of transmission: Perinatal transmissionA chronic hepatitis B mother usually transmits hepatitis B virus to an infant perinatally.The chance of perinatal transmission is more than 90%. In areas of high endemicity like Hong Kong and China, this is a major route of transmission. Blood contact Accidental contact with an infected person's blood or body fluids through skin cuts, abrasion, or mucosal membranes of the eyes and mouths. Sharing injection instruments for drug injection. Using contaminated instruments for ear-piercing, tattooing or acupuncture. Sharing personal items such as razors, shavers or nail trimmer which may have been contaminated with blood. Sexual contactUnprotected sexual contact with an infected person. Prevention of Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is one of the diseases that can be transmitted by blood and body fluids, therefore the precautions are the same as those against other blood-borne infections. Handle an open wound carefully; make sure it is properly bandaged. Disinfect items contaminated by blood or body fluid with household bleach. Use gloved hands to handle splashes of blood and body fluid and perform hand hygiene after cleansing.-For blood, cleanse the visible matter with disposable absorbent material soaked with 1 part of household bleach into 4 parts of water (1:4). After leaving for 10 minutes, rinse with water.-For blood-stained clothing, soaked with 1 part of household bleach into 49 parts of water (1:49) for 30 minutes then washed as casual.-For other body fluids, cleanse the visible matter with disposable absorbent material soaked with 1 part of household bleach into 49 parts of water (1:49). After leaving for 30 minutes, rinse with water. Do NOT share razors and toothbrushes or needles with other people. Be careful if you decide to undergo procedures like tattooing and mole removal. Make sure clean, disposable instruments are used. Limit the number of your sexual partners. Practice safer sex and use the condom properly. If your sexual partner is known to be a chronic hepatitis B, receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible. Prevention by Hepatitis B Vaccination The most effective method is through hepatitis B vaccination. The complete course of vaccination takes a total of three injections. The second injection is given 1 month after the first, and the third injection 5 months after the second. About 90 to 95% of people will gain life-long immunity to hepatitis B after a full course of vaccination. Preferably have blood tests before vaccinated. Only people who have never been exposed to hepatitis B should have vaccination. Who should receive vaccination against hepatitis B Vaccination against hepatitis B may be considered in the following groups of people: Newborns Household and sexual contacts of chronic hepatitis B Intravenous drug users People who receive blood or blood products on a regular basis People on dialysis Health care workers who might be in contact with blood or other body fluids. Medical treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) Your doctor may perform tests such as liver function tests, alpha-fetoprotein, blood level of virus, and ultrasonographic liver examination etc. These will guide clinical management, including the use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs are able to suppress HBV replication and thereby reduce virus-induced liver damage. Examples of first-line antivirals include entecavir and tenofovir. Consult your doctor for the appropriateness of these drugs. For people with CHB who require immunosuppressive therapy, such as high dose steroid or chemotherapy, your doctor will decide whether treatment is needed to protect your liver.     Source: https://www.info.gov.hk/hepatitis/english/hep_b_set.htm 2018.12.5 endoscopy Colonoscopy *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.9.12 shutterstock_589026884-928x522 Hepatitis C • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small RNA virus that causes liver damage. Like hepatitis B carriers, some hepatitis C carriers develop chronic hepatitis, liver scarring or liver cancer.• The incubation period is 6-9 weeks (ranges from 2 weeks to 6 months).• A majority of people infected with HCV do not have symptoms or signs. If symptoms and signs occur, they are indistinguishable from those of hepatitis A or hepatitis B virus infections. About 80% of acute infections do not clear the virus and chronic infections ensue.• To test for hepatitis C infection, HCV Ab and HCV RNA are used.• The risk of liver failure and liver-related death from HCV increases for those who are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Epidemiology• Worldwide, HCV prevalence is directly related to the prevalence of persons who routinely share injection equipment and to the prevalence of contaminated parenteral practices in health care settings.• WHO estimates that 2-3% of world population is chronically infected with HCV.• It has been estimated that less than 0.5% of the general population in Hong Kong carry hepatitis C virus, but the infection rate is higher among injecting drug users.Transmission of Hepatitis CHepatitis C is spread in a similar way as hepatitis B, mainly through blood contact by:• sharing needles or 'works' when shooting drugs,• needlesticks injuries or sharps exposures on the job,• vertical transmission from an infected mother to her baby during labour.Less commonly, a person can get Hepatitis C infection via sexual contact. The risk increases among men who have sex with men, for those who have sexually transmitted infection, engage in rough sex, or are infected with HIV.PreventionThere is no vaccine available against hepatitis C. The following preventive measures should be taken to prevent hepatitis C:• Do not shoot drugs. If you shoot drugs, stop and get into a treatment programme. If you cannot stop, never share needles, syringes, water, or 'works'.• Do not share personal care items (e.g. razors, toothbrushes) that are potentially contaminated with blood.• HCV infected persons should not donate blood, organs, or tissue.• Health care worker should always follow routine barrier precautions and should handle needles and sharps safely.• Use latex condoms correctly and every time when you have sex.Medical Management• HCV positive persons should be evaluated by their doctor for liver disease.• Drugs, such as Interferon, Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin, can be used to treat the infection. Treatment should take into consideration of severity of disease, contraindications, and likelihood of successful response.Source: https://www.info.gov.hk/hepatitis/english/hep_c_set.htm 2018.7.30 04 Sciatica *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2016.12.22 03 Common misconceptions on scoliosis *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2016.12.2 02 Cervicogenic headache *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2016.12.1 01 How High Heels Affect your body *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2016.12.1
未命名-1 *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.8.2 未命名-1 *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.8.2 未命名-1 *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.8.2 未命名-1 *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.8.2 shutterstock_1188106696 Day Sleepiness and Serious Snoring Problems? *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2019.4.2 sleep apnoea Snoring and Sleep Apnea *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.31 016 Travelers should beware of contagious disease *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 015 Prolonged fever in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 014 Asperger's Disorder *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 013 Scarlet Fever *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 012 Haematuria *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 011 Hib (PedvaxHIB Amp) Vaccine Haemophilus influenzae type b(Hib) is mainly transmitted through direct contact with nose or throat secretion of an infected person. It is a kind of bacteria that can cause serious invasive diseases, which usually affects young children. Haemophilus influenzae type b(Hib) does not cause influenza or flu. In contrary, it commonly presents as meningitis (infection of membranes covering the brain), often accompanied by germ entering the bloodstream. It may also affect other parts of the body, such as the lungs, epiglottis (upper part of the throat), etc. Meningitis can lead to symptoms such as fever and nausea; while epiglottitis can cause symptoms such as drooling and difficulty in breathing. Therefore, it is suggested that infants should receive a total of 4 Hib vaccinations respectively at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months after birth, so as to induce development of antibodies in the body and provide protection against bacterial infection. 2018.12.21 09 MMR Priorix Vaccine Measles, Mumps and Rubella are infectious diseases that are transmitted by droplets or direct contact with respiratory secretions of infected persons. Therefore, it is recommended all infants and children should receive MMR vaccine, to effectively prevent the above three infectious diseases. Some children may experience fever or skin rash 5 to 12 days after injection, but these symptoms will not persist for long. A minority of children may develop transient swelling of lymph glands, but the cases are very rare. 2018.12.21 09 De Quervain's disease *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 08 Plantar fasciitis *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 07 Upper Crossed Syndrome *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 06 Degenerative Joint Disease *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 05 Back Pain *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.12.21 images_vaccine 5 In 1 Vaccine & 6 In 1 Vaccine 5 In 1 Vaccine & 6 In 1 Vaccine    5in1 Vaccine(DTaP-IPV/Hib) 6in1 Vaccine(DTaP-IPV-HBV-Hib) PreventableDiseases .Diphteria.Tetanus.Pertussis.Polio.Hib .Diphteria.Tetanus.Pertussis.Polio.Hib.Hepatitis B 2 kinds of mixed vaccines have adopted non-cellular formula. It can effectively prevent infants from being infected by Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (Whooping Cough), Poliomyelitis and Haemophilus Influenzae. Type B (Hib). 6 in 1 is plus hepatitis B all rolled into 1 vaccine. Compare with the injection of traditional vaccines, these mixed vaccines can reduce total number of doses greatly and thereby help infants to alleviate with discomfort and pain related to vaccinations in order not to get parents worry. 2018.12.11 iStock_000054349804_web-e1487270567260 HPV Vaccine 1. What is human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine? Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (also named as cervical cancer vaccine) is a prophylactic vaccine to prevent cervical cancer as well as other HPV-related cancers or diseases. Currently, there are three registered HPV vaccines in Hong Kong, namely 2-valent vaccine, 4-valent vaccine and 9-valent vaccine. All of them are prescription-only medicines, so they should only be used after clinical assessment by registered doctors.   2. How effective are HPV vaccines? Both the Scientific Committee on Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Scientific Committee and Scientific Committee on AIDS and STI under the Centre for Health Protection recommend that all three registered HPV vaccines could prevent infections from HPV types 16 and 18, which account for about 70% of all cervical cancer. By covering five additional HPV genotypes, i.e. HPV-31, 33, 45, 52, 58, the 9-valent vaccine could prevent up to 90% of cervical cancer. The attributes and dosing recommendations of the three registered HPV vaccines available in Hong Kong Vaccines 2-valent 4-valent 9-valent Against HPV HPV-16,18 HPV-6,11,16,18 HPV-6,11,16,18,31,33,45,52,58 Indicated age From the age of 9 years(Female only) From the age of 9 years (Both female & male) From the age of 9 years(Both female & male) Diseases prevention caused by related HPV       .Cervical cancer Yes Yes Yes .Genital warts No Yes Yes Approved dose regime in Hong Kong 9-14 years old: 2 doses 15 years old and above: 3 doses 9-13 years old: 2 doses 14 years old and above: 3 doses 9-14 years old: 2 doses 15 years old and above: 3 doses Source: Consensus Statement on the Use of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine in prevention of cervical cancer, CHP (Sep 2016)    3. How long will HPV vaccines provide protection? Latest research has shown that HPV vaccines offer protection for at least 9 years.    4. Who should get HPV vaccination? HPV vaccines work best for women who have never been exposed to HPV infection. Therefore, they should work best in women who have not started sexual activities. In women who have had sexual activities, the effectiveness varies. Please consult your doctor for further information.   5. How are HPV vaccines given? HPV vaccines can either be given as 2-dose or 3-dose schedule according to the age of the individuals. Please consult your doctor for further advice.   6. Are there any side effects from HPV vaccines? HPV vaccines are generally safe. Common side effects are similar to those from other vaccinations, such as soreness and swelling at the injection site, fever, headache and nausea. The vaccines are not recommended for those who have had allergic reactions to any component of HPV vaccines. If in doubt, please consult your doctor for further advice. In addition, the Department of Health has pharmacovigilance system in place to keep vigilance on the safety of HPV vaccines.    7. Are HPV vaccines safe for pregnant women? Because of limited data, HPV vaccines are not recommended for pregnant women. Pregnant women should consult their doctors for any queries.   8. Do I still need cervical cancer screening after HPV vaccination? Yes, women who have received HPV vaccination still need regular cervical cancer screening because HPV vaccination does not protect against infection by the HPV types that are not found in the vaccines, nor can clear the virus in those who have already been infected.  2018.12.5 images_vaccine Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Pneumococcal infection Pneumococcal infection represents a wide range of diseases caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae / pneumococcus). More than 90 serotypes have been identified. It can be transmitted by droplet spread and contact with respiratory secretions; direct contact is another way of transmission. S.pneumoniae causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including: meningitis: it is a severe type of pneumococcal infection and usually presents with fever, stiff neck and mental confusion, causing long-term problems, such as hearing loss, or even death; pneumonia: it commonly presents with fever, shortness of breath, chills and productive cough, and may result in death in severe cases; and otitis media: it presents with fever, ear pain with or without ear discharge, and may lead to hearing loss in recurrent cases. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) A. Why get vaccinated? Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) can effectively protect against severe invasive infections due to the serotypes of S. pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. Children aged below 2 years are at risk to severe invasive pneumococcal infection (i.e. meningitis, bacteraemic pneumonia and septicaemia) and are advised to get vaccinated.  In Hong Kong, PCV13 (vaccine consisting of antigens against thirteen pneumococci serotypes) is included in the Hong Kong Childhood Immunisation Programme.  The Scientific Committee on Vaccine Preventable Diseases recommends individuals aged 2 to 64 years with certain high risk conditions* to receive 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharideas well as PCV 13.  For more details, please refer to the following link: *High risk conditions include: History of invasive pneumococcal disease Immunocompromised states: Asplenia, HIV /AIDS , primary immunodeficiency Immunodeficiencies related to malignancies and transplantation Immunodeficiencies related to use of immunosuppressive drugs / systemic steroid Chronic disease Chronic cardiac, pulmonary, liver or renal disease Diabetes mellitus or Cerebrospinal fluid leakage With cochlear implants (Essential hypertension per se is not considered as a high risk condition) Different factors such as age and clinical condition may affect the risk of pneumococcal disease. Patients with high-risk conditions should discuss with their attending doctors on the most appropriate vaccination regimen. B. When should my child get vaccinated? A child is advised to receive 3 doses of PCV13 in the first year of life (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months old), and another booster dose at 12 months old. C. The following individuals should NOT receive PCV serious allergic reaction to previous dose of PCV serious allergic reaction to diphtheria toxoid containing vaccine D. What are the side effects? Most people have no serious reactions after receiving PCV.   Occasionally there may be mild fever (usually occur within 3 days after vaccination) or slight redness or swelling around the injection site, but these will gradually subside in a few days. If fever or discomforts persist, or abnormal breathing is observed, please consult a doctor immediately. E. How many types of PCV are available in HK and what are their protection? There are more than 1 type of PCV available in the market of Hong Kong but no one PCV can cover all serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Personal and environmental hygiene are important measures in preventing pneumococcal infection.   2018.12.5 shutterstock_589026884-928x522 Hepatitis B Vaccination Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is another type of viral hepatitis that leads to acute hepatitis. It can be followed by chronic liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. It has an incubation period of 6 weeks to 6 months. About 5-10% of infected adults and 70-90% of infected infants are unable to clear the virus, therefore becoming chronic hepatitis B and serving as a source of infection to others. Epidemiology HBV infection occurs throughout the world. It is estimated that more than 2 billion people have been infected worldwide, of which more than 350 million have chronic liver infection. Hepatitis B is endemic in Southeast Asia. In Hong Kong, the overall prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection is moderate. Transmission of Hepatitis B The hepatitis B virus is found in the body fluids of an infected person, mainly in the form of blood, amniotic fluid, semen and vaginal secretions. Routes of transmission: Perinatal transmissionA chronic hepatitis B mother usually transmits hepatitis B virus to an infant perinatally.The chance of perinatal transmission is more than 90%. In areas of high endemicity like Hong Kong and China, this is a major route of transmission. Blood contact Accidental contact with an infected person's blood or body fluids through skin cuts, abrasion, or mucosal membranes of the eyes and mouths. Sharing injection instruments for drug injection. Using contaminated instruments for ear-piercing, tattooing or acupuncture. Sharing personal items such as razors, shavers or nail trimmer which may have been contaminated with blood. Sexual contactUnprotected sexual contact with an infected person. Prevention of Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is one of the diseases that can be transmitted by blood and body fluids, therefore the precautions are the same as those against other blood-borne infections. Handle an open wound carefully; make sure it is properly bandaged. Disinfect items contaminated by blood or body fluid with household bleach. Use gloved hands to handle splashes of blood and body fluid and perform hand hygiene after cleansing.-For blood, cleanse the visible matter with disposable absorbent material soaked with 1 part of household bleach into 4 parts of water (1:4). After leaving for 10 minutes, rinse with water.-For blood-stained clothing, soaked with 1 part of household bleach into 49 parts of water (1:49) for 30 minutes then washed as casual.-For other body fluids, cleanse the visible matter with disposable absorbent material soaked with 1 part of household bleach into 49 parts of water (1:49). After leaving for 30 minutes, rinse with water. Do NOT share razors and toothbrushes or needles with other people. Be careful if you decide to undergo procedures like tattooing and mole removal. Make sure clean, disposable instruments are used. Limit the number of your sexual partners. Practice safer sex and use the condom properly. If your sexual partner is known to be a chronic hepatitis B, receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible. Prevention by Hepatitis B Vaccination The most effective method is through hepatitis B vaccination. The complete course of vaccination takes a total of three injections. The second injection is given 1 month after the first, and the third injection 5 months after the second. About 90 to 95% of people will gain life-long immunity to hepatitis B after a full course of vaccination. Preferably have blood tests before vaccinated. Only people who have never been exposed to hepatitis B should have vaccination. Who should receive vaccination against hepatitis B Vaccination against hepatitis B may be considered in the following groups of people: Newborns Household and sexual contacts of chronic hepatitis B Intravenous drug users People who receive blood or blood products on a regular basis People on dialysis Health care workers who might be in contact with blood or other body fluids. Medical treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) Your doctor may perform tests such as liver function tests, alpha-fetoprotein, blood level of virus, and ultrasonographic liver examination etc. These will guide clinical management, including the use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs are able to suppress HBV replication and thereby reduce virus-induced liver damage. Examples of first-line antivirals include entecavir and tenofovir. Consult your doctor for the appropriateness of these drugs. For people with CHB who require immunosuppressive therapy, such as high dose steroid or chemotherapy, your doctor will decide whether treatment is needed to protect your liver.     Source: https://www.info.gov.hk/hepatitis/english/hep_b_set.htm 2018.12.5 endoscopy Colonoscopy *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2018.9.12 shutterstock_589026884-928x522 Hepatitis C • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small RNA virus that causes liver damage. Like hepatitis B carriers, some hepatitis C carriers develop chronic hepatitis, liver scarring or liver cancer.• The incubation period is 6-9 weeks (ranges from 2 weeks to 6 months).• A majority of people infected with HCV do not have symptoms or signs. If symptoms and signs occur, they are indistinguishable from those of hepatitis A or hepatitis B virus infections. About 80% of acute infections do not clear the virus and chronic infections ensue.• To test for hepatitis C infection, HCV Ab and HCV RNA are used.• The risk of liver failure and liver-related death from HCV increases for those who are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Epidemiology• Worldwide, HCV prevalence is directly related to the prevalence of persons who routinely share injection equipment and to the prevalence of contaminated parenteral practices in health care settings.• WHO estimates that 2-3% of world population is chronically infected with HCV.• It has been estimated that less than 0.5% of the general population in Hong Kong carry hepatitis C virus, but the infection rate is higher among injecting drug users.Transmission of Hepatitis CHepatitis C is spread in a similar way as hepatitis B, mainly through blood contact by:• sharing needles or 'works' when shooting drugs,• needlesticks injuries or sharps exposures on the job,• vertical transmission from an infected mother to her baby during labour.Less commonly, a person can get Hepatitis C infection via sexual contact. The risk increases among men who have sex with men, for those who have sexually transmitted infection, engage in rough sex, or are infected with HIV.PreventionThere is no vaccine available against hepatitis C. The following preventive measures should be taken to prevent hepatitis C:• Do not shoot drugs. If you shoot drugs, stop and get into a treatment programme. If you cannot stop, never share needles, syringes, water, or 'works'.• Do not share personal care items (e.g. razors, toothbrushes) that are potentially contaminated with blood.• HCV infected persons should not donate blood, organs, or tissue.• Health care worker should always follow routine barrier precautions and should handle needles and sharps safely.• Use latex condoms correctly and every time when you have sex.Medical Management• HCV positive persons should be evaluated by their doctor for liver disease.• Drugs, such as Interferon, Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin, can be used to treat the infection. Treatment should take into consideration of severity of disease, contraindications, and likelihood of successful response.Source: https://www.info.gov.hk/hepatitis/english/hep_c_set.htm 2018.7.30 04 Sciatica *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2016.12.22 03 Common misconceptions on scoliosis *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2016.12.2 02 Cervicogenic headache *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2016.12.1 01 How High Heels Affect your body *Availalbe in Chi Version Only 2016.12.1
All Article
About Us

Human Health has been providing healthcare services to the Hong Kong community since 1997. Listed in Hong Kong (HKEX Stock Code: 1419), we operate more than 70 medical centres, with more than 100 doctors and dentists and more than 300 healthcare staffs. With the motto "From our heart. For your health", we strive to provide one-stop medical services for public convenience including General Practices, Specialty Services, Dental Services, Chinese Medicine, Physiotherapy, Diagnostics & Imaging and Medical Aesthetics. Through our network of medical centres in Hong Kong, we have established a good relationship with more than 2 million of clients.

front-page
View More
10+_CC_4c_324MABE2017_logo(White)HKIM Logo 2017_2018_gold-01_web20171218-123723_1_lsport_logo_CMYKhappycompany20172018-19「友商有良」LOGOGood-Employer-Logo---colour